Analyzing I2C (Inter-Integrated Circuit)

1. I2C protocol internals

  • Bus protocols designed for data communications between different components in an embedded device
  • Common modules having bus protocol
    • Flash chip
    • EEPROM chip
    • Microcontrollers
    • LCD
    • RTC (Real Time Clocks)
    • Analog to Digital Convertors (ADC)
    • etc.
  • I2C and SPI are both meant for communicating with other peripherals located on the same board
  • UART limitations compared to I2C
    • facilitating communication between only two devices at a given time
    • start-stop bits increase size and reduce speed of process
    • originally intended for communication for large distances,
      • while interacting with external devices via cables
  • Multi-master serial protocol (with multi-slaves)
  • Half-duplex (send or receive) (read or write)
  • Consists of 2 pins for data transfer
    • Serial Data (SDA) and Serial Clock (SCL)
  • If 2 masters wanted to take control over an I2C bus at the same time?
    • Whichever master pulls the SDA to LOW (0) will gain control of the bus
    • i.e. zero rushes to win

2. Pentest objectives

  • Read (dump) contents (firmware and sensitive data) from a device’s flash chip
  • Write (flash) content (such as backdoor firmware image) to the flash chip

3. Tools

  • I2C Converter/Adapter (any supported FTDI based hardware)
    • USB-TTL (or)
    • BusPriate (or)
    • Attify Badge

4. Identify the I2C pinouts

  • Open the device
  • Visually identify the I2C EEPROM chip on the PCB
  • Note the component number printed on the I2C chip
  • Look up online for the datasheet to figure out the pinouts of EEPROM

  • Flash and EEPROM have common pinouts but sometimes changes according to the manufacturers
    • Flash pinouts
      • #CS, SO/IO1, SI/IO0, VSS, VCC
    • EEPROM pinouts
      • #CS, SCK, MISO, MOSI, GND, VCC, #WP, #HOLD

5. Connecting EEPROM

  • Method 1: SOIC clip
    • directly connect it to the adapter by holding the EEPROM using a SOIC clip
  • Method 2: Desoldering
    • remove the EEPROM from the PCB by de-soldering
    • solder it on a EEPROM adapter (or reader)
      • use an adapter which is suitable for EEPROM packaging type
  • SOIC clip vs desoldering
    • The memory component on the PCB is accessed using the SOIC clip or by desoldering.
    • Although the SOIC clip approach is more practical and less invasive,
      • desoldering is sometimes unavoidable.
    • The voltage supplied to the memory through the SOIC clip sometimes also powers other chips.
    • Some of the other components on the PCB may attempt to communicate with the memory,
      • thus blocking communication between the memory and the external adapter.
    • Therefore, it becomes imperative to remove the memory component from the PCB.
  • Adapter (Attify Badge) pin layout

    D0 SCK Serial Clock
    D1 SDA* Serial Data
    D2 SDA* Serial Data

    Note: For I2C, the D1 and D2 lines need to be connected together for SDA.

  • Connect the EEPROM pins to the adapter (Attify Badge)

    EEPROM Adapter
    A0, A1, A2, GND GND
    VCC 5V
    WP 5V (Write Protect)
    SDA D1 and D2 of Attify badge
    CLK D0 of Attify badge
  • Connect the adapter to the analysis PC via USB

6. Reading data

  • Read data from the device using an I2C EEPROM
  • Use the script
  • Need to modify parameters (size and speed) before start

    eeprom.Start() to start the I2C clock
    Start initialize the EEPROM
    eeprom.Write(RCMD) set EEPROM to Read mode
    data() start reading content from the EEPROM and saving it
    Stop() Close() stop and we close the I2C connection
    write() write the content to a binary file
  • Dump the contents to a file

7. Writing data

  • Write data to the I2C EEPROM
  • Use the script