Insufficient Logging and Monitoring

In secure systems, ongoing attacks should be notified to the owners or maintainers as soon as possible so that the attack can be stopped. If the system doesn’t, the attackers could get access to more and more data and do even more damage, without facing any defences from the target system. This can be likened as having a house without alarms - if an intruder gets in, nobody is notified and the intruder can do whatever they want for a much longer time than if an alarm had gone off. Having implemented a stable logging system is also extremely important, as it allows the system’s maintainers to notice suspicious behavior.[1]

Because of insufficient logging and monitoring being so common, a lot of the times it’s possible for an attacker to simply make their attacks slightly stealthier for it to go unnoticed. The popular tool Nmap has many options that can be used for this purpose.


Kali Linux comes with Nmap installed by default, but you can also download it here.

Nmap was designed to scan both whole networks as well as single hosts. Its output is a list of the scanned hosts, with extra information on each host depending on the options specified.[2]

There are multiple port scanning techniques that Nmap can use. Here is an excellent guide to figuring out which one to use in what situations.

For more information on how to use Nmap, see the Nmap Reference Guide.


[1] Borso, Serge. (2019). The Penetration Tester’s Guide to Web Applications (Artech House information security and privacy series). Norwood: Artech House. Link to KTH Library.
[2] Nmap Reference Guide. (Fetched 2021-05-23)